Purple to red brown externally, tan internally. Giant Barrel Sponge (12 photos) Haliclona mucifibrosa (0 photos) Orange Lumpy Encrusting (4 photos) Haliclona Sp. Galaxea 18:1–2, Rua CP, Zilberberg C, Solé-Cava AM (2011) New polymorphic mitochondrial markers for sponge phylogeography. Also, the inconsistencies of the placement of certain groups relative to other groups illustrate that the phylogenetic relationships between the groups cannot be completely resolved with the combination of markers used in this study. It can also have several different shaped openings. Water is continually being pumped through the interior of the sponge. Bell, Growth and longevity in giant barrel sponges: Redwoods of the reef or Pines in the Indo-Pacific?, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-018-33294-1, 8, 1, (2018). Sympatric populations of X. testudinaria and X. bergquistia spawn at different times of the year near Australia, possibly triggered by water temperature (Fromont and Bergquist 1994). Giant specimens may reach a diameter of up to 2 meters. At present, giant barrel sponges occur in the western Indo-Pacific (including the Red Sea and western Indian Ocean), the central Indo-Pacific and the tropical Atlantic. Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. To our knowledge, the intertwined evolutionary history of tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa we found for giant barrel sponges has never been found in other benthic reef animals. Brittle and crumbly in consistency. Classification 6. with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018. 2013). In other words, different species in each ocean basin do not form separate monophyletic clades. Xestospongia muta. Most genetic studies of sponges have indicated the existence of cryptic species and refuted ocean-wide distributions of several taxa (Duran and Rützler 2006; Swierts et al. PubMed Google Scholar. 2004). 2016). Caribbean Journal of Science 29:75–88, Zhan A, Macisaac HJ, Cristescu ME (2010) Invasion genetics of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: from regional endemism to global homogeneity. 2008). Surface with protuberances with round or blade-like outlines. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 91:1015–1022, Schwaninger HR (2008) Global mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and biogeographic history of the antitropically and longitudinally disjunct marine bryozoan Membranipora membranacea L. (Cheilostomata): another cryptic marine sibling species complex? National Geographic article about sponges in the Shape of Life: Was The Humble Sponge Earth's First Animal? Our own interpretation of nine groups differs from the results from the ABGD and TCS analyses, which both find only seven groups, but with partially different compositions. Nuclear DNA (nDNA) evolves independently from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); thus, congruent patterns across these markers support the existence of biological species (Goetze 2010; Padial et al. Samples that contained two nucleotide positions with double peaks were reconstructed using DnaSP v5.10.01 with the PHASE v2.1 algorithm (Stephens et al. Google Scholar, Bentlage B, Wörheide G (2007) Low genetic structuring among Pericharax heteroraphis (Porifera: Calcarea) populations from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), revealed by analysis of nrDNA and nuclear intron sequences. 2013). Mar Biotechnol 4:347–355, Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, Buxton S, Cooper A, Markowitz S, Duran C, Thierer T, Ashton B, Mentjies P, Drummond A (2012) Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Giant kelp grows faster than bamboo. Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 14.55 µL sterile water, 4.2 Ll dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.6 µL buffer (Qiagen), 1.6 Ll BSA (Promega) 0.4 µL of each primer (10 µM), 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1). 2016). The importance of geographic isolation, possibly related to sea currents, was suggested as a driving force in sponge speciation (DeBiasse et al. 2001). Google Scholar, Bowen BW, Gaither MR, DiBattista JD, Iacchei M, Andrews KR, Grant WS, Toonen RJ, Briggs JC (2016) Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet. Dr. M May 8, 2014 Barrel Sponge giant largest record holder It is probably this 2.5 meter (8.2 feet) diameter giant that was a tourist attraction for scuba divers visiting Curaçao in … Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574, Röthing T, Voolstra CR (2016) Xestospongia testudinaria nighttime mass spawning observation in Indonesia. We thank Friso Dekker, Maarten van Gemert, Christine Hörnlein, Yusheng Huang, Laurie van Reemst, Ee Crovetto, Ana-Rita Polonia, Rossana Freitas, Anne Bialecki, Mike Berumen, Jaaziel Garcia Hernandez, Sumaitt Putchakarn, Chad Scott, Nguyen Khac Bat, Swee Cheng Lim, Zarinah Waheed, Yosephine Tuti, Betsie Voetdijk, Peter Kuperus and Marcel Eurlings for logistic support, collecting and laboratory assistance. A well-known attraction nearby is the restaurant with the giant barrel in Obri Sud. Box 94248, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg, Christiaan A. de Leeuw & Johannes A. J. Breeuwer, Marine Animal Ecology, Wageningen UR, P.O. History of Sponges 2. Mean genetic distance for the nDNA was considerably higher than for the mtDNA. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 21:1113–1120, Nagelkerken I, Aerts L, Pors L (2000) Barrel sponge bows out. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges. Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 15.5 µL sterile water, 5 µL dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.5 µL coralload buffer (Qiagen), 0.4 µL of each primer (10 µM), 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1). Coral Reefs 28:157–165, Love GD, Grosjean E, Stalvies C, Fike DA, Grotzinger JP, Bradley AS, Kelly AE, Bhatia M, Meredith W, Snape CE, Bowring SA, Condon DJ, Summons RE (2009) Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period. Therefore, these three groups seem to be distributed across the entire tropical Atlantic. Mol Biol Evol 2016:msw054, Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, López R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007) ClustalW and ClustalX version 2. Red-Orange Encrusting Sponge. Molecular studies on giant barrel sponges using these mtDNA and nDNA markers have revealed some interesting results. Trees were visualized with FigTree v1.4.2 (Morariu et al. However, this is inconsistent with the high biodiversity found in coral reefs, which rivals numbers found in tropical rainforests (Reaka-Kudla et al. 1997). Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. For the CO1 gene, we used the primers C1-J2165 (5′-GAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCDGG-3′) and C1-Npor2760 (5′-TCTAGGTAATCCAGCTAAACC-3′), which amplified a fragment of 544 base pairs (bp). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for the ATPsß-intron in Geneious using the PHYML plugin (Guindon et al. They are considered the oldest multicellular animal lineage (van Soest et al. Coral Reefs Giant barrel sponges (genus Xestospongia, family Petrosiidae, order Haplosclerida) are widely distributed throughout multiple tropical oceans. 2008 ). Box 9517, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands, Thomas Swierts, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg, Christiaan A. de Leeuw & Nicole J. de Voogd, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), P.O. 2014; Knapp et al. Nevertheless, our data do indicate that the current taxonomic consensus with X. muta occurring in the tropical Atlantic and X. testudinaria in the Red Sea, western Indian Ocean and central Indo-Pacific, is incorrect. Rough Tube Sponge. SPONGE SPECIES. [http://eol.org/pages/338183/overview, downloaded 27 March 2015] TRAITS. were collected by SCUBA diving from 17 different locations (Table 1; Fig. MtDNA diversity of the Indonesian giant barrel sponge Xestospongia testudinaria (Porifera: Haplosclerida) – implications from partial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences - Volume 96 Special Issue - Edwin Setiawan, Nicole J. de Voogd, Thomas Swierts, John N.A. 3). Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. Journal of Natural History 26:271–284, Bowen BW, Rocha LA, Toonen RJ, Karl SA (2013) The origins of tropical marine biodiversity. Google Scholar, Bridge TC, Hughes TP, Guinotte JM, Bongaerts P (2013) Call to protect all coral reefs. Sponges (Porifera) are an animal group with a relatively simple morphology and often pronounced morphological plasticity (Knowlton 2000). Mol Ecol 19:4678–4694. Emily C. McGrath, Lisa Woods, Jamaluddin Jompa, Abdul Haris, James J. 2000). Samples that contained many double peaks may have represented mixtures of multiple sequences and were therefore cloned using the pGEM-T Easy kit (Promega Corporation) or the TOPO-TA cloning kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific), following the manufacturers’ protocols. The last two images were kindly provided by Armin … Giant barrel sponges from 17 coral reef systems across the globe were sequenced for mitochondrial (partial CO1 and ATP6 genes) and nuclear (ATPsβ intron) DNA markers. In this study, we sequenced giant barrel sponges from reefs across the globe for a combination of the mtDNA genes ATP6 and CO1 and the nDNA intron ATPsβ. Haplosclerida. It is typically brownish-red to brownish-gray in color, with a hard or stony texture. particular, giant barrel sponges, which belong to the genus Xestospongia, have drawn the attention of the scientiﬁc community due to their pharmacological activities and their role in ecosystems.19,20 In ecological systems, their large size allows them to play an essential role in the reef, providing A better understanding of these species helps in our understanding of the evolutionary history of tropical marine species in general and marine sponges in particular, which is essential to our understanding of marine diversity. Resolving accurate species boundaries in such groups is important for the conservation of tropical marine ecosystems. Ann Rev Mar Sci 2:367–393, Goetze E (2010) Species discovery in marine planktonic invertebrates through global molecular screening. The only individual with haplotype C5A6 was found in Taiwan; this individual had unique nuclear DNA and did not fit in any of the other three groups of the Indo-Pacific (group 4). It is common at depths greater than 10 metres (33 ft) down to 120 metres (390 ft) and can reach a diameter of 1.8 metres (6 feet). The PCR protocol consisted of an initial denaturing step (95 °C for 5 min), followed by 35 cycles of denaturing (95 °C for 30 s), annealing (45 °C for 30 s) and extension (72 °C for 45 s), and a final extension step (72 °C for 4 min) executed in a T100 thermal cycler from Bio-Rad. Values on branches indicate bootstrap support (only shown when >50) and Bayesian support value (only shown when >0.90). Giant Barrel Sponge has shades of gray color, brown, red brown or rose purple color. J Biogeogr 40:1023–1035, Clement M, Posada DCKA, Crandall KA (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Giant barrel sponges are large and long-lived and have therefore been nicknamed ‘the redwoods of the reef’ (McMurray et al. Article Hence, they can be notoriously difficult to identify to species or even to a higher taxonomic level due to the lack of reliable morphological markers (Knowlton 2000). For the ATP6 gene, only three haplotypes were previously known (A1–A3; Swierts et al. We successfully amplified the nuclear intron ATPsß from 211 individuals. However, it is possible that all giant barrel sponges spawn just once a year, and these different times in fact correspond to different mass spawning events of distinct species. Giant barrel sponges Xestospongiatestudinaria(Lamarck, 1813) and Xestospongiabergquistia(Fromont, 1991) in the Indo-Pacific and Xestospongiamuta(Schmidt, 1870) in the Caribbean, are among the largest known sponges (Demospongiae; Haplosclerida), measuring up to 2.4 meters in height and width. Our second aim was to test whether the giant barrel sponges in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific represent two monophyletic lineages. with the base broader than the top. 2013; Setiawan et al. This has important implications for a number of published studies on the demography and population genetics of giant barrel sponges which assumed a single population of giant barrel sponge (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; McMurray et al. Our results suggest the existence of three species in the tropical Atlantic, in line with previous suggestions based on a study of the sterol compositions of giant barrel sponges (Kerr et al. Decomposing kelp that sinks to the seafloor provides food for animals in the deep sea. Certain other groups were statistically supported, which is, particularly in combination with their sympatric occurrence, a strong indication for speciation. Mean genetic distance was calculated between these groups for the mtDNA and nDNA genes in MEGA 7.0.21 (Kumar et al. Also in the tropical Atlantic, McMurray et al. Giant barrel sponges (genus Xestospongia, family Petrosiidae, order Haplosclerida) are widely distributed throughout multiple tropical oceans. 2013) illustrate the evolutionary potential of tropical marine environments. Only reconstructed haplotypes with probabilities >0.9 were used for further analysis. Coral Reefs 36, 933–945 (2017). That group, the phylum Porifera, represents the 8,755 valid species of sponge, most all of which are marine. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Departamento de Biologia, CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, You can also search for this author in We also calculated Bayesian support values with MrBayes 3.2.6 (Huelsenbeck and Ronquist 2001; Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003). After 6–12 h, the ethanol was changed and samples were stored at −20 °C. was investigated. Double peaks were called when the height of the secondary peak was at least 60% of that of the primary peak in both the forward and reverse sequence reads. Part of Springer Nature. In contrast, certain species show strong genetic connectivity at a global scale (Horne et al. 2016). Sponge larvae, however, are generally considered to have low survival under environmental stress, and their transport in the ballast water of ships is unlikely and has not yet been reported (Klautau et al. 5. Trumpet fish represent a so-called ‘global ring species complex’, in which different lineages have come into contact after three to four million years of isolation and appear to be merging (Bowen et al. In this study, the relationship between the metabolome and the geographical location of sponges within the genus Xestospongia spp. 2012), having evolved more than 500 million yr ago (Love et al. All sequences were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KY381293–KY381577. The domain is Eukarya. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:7962–7969, CAS Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 14 µL sterile water, 5 µL dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.5 µL coralload buffer (Qiagen), 1.5 µL BSA (Promega), 0.4 µL (10 µM) of each primer, 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1). An increasing number of examples of non-allopatric speciation along ecological gradients (reviewed in Bowen et al. Science 265:1547–1551, Jarman SN, Ward RD, Elliott NG (2002) Oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of coelomate introns. Google Scholar, Boury-Esnault N, Solé-Cava AM, Thorpe JP (1992) Genetic and cytological divergence between colour morphs of the Mediterranean sponge Oscarella lobularis Schmidt (Porifera, Demospongiae, Oscarellidae). Some genetic groups (e.g., groups 1, 6 and 7) were not statistically supported in the nuclear gene tree, but these could still represent (incipient) species because they occur in different parts of the world’s oceans and are thus geographically isolated. Seven of the nine CO1-haplotypes (C1–C9) previously submitted to GenBank (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. This renewal project would investigate the chemical ecology of Caribbean reef sponges, a group whose taxonomy … Canal System 8. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, McMurray SE, Blum JE, Pawlik JR (2008) Redwood of the reef: growth and age of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Coral Reefs 13:119–126, Geller JB, Darling JA, Carlton JT (2010) Genetic perspectives on marine biological invasions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 253:8–31, Horne JB, van Herwerden L, Choat JH, Robertson DR (2008) High population connectivity across the Indo-Pacific: congruent lack of phylogeographic structure in three reef fish congeners. It is brown-grey to reddish in colour, with a hard or stony texture. 2016). Sinauer Press, Sunderland, MA, USA, pp 39–60, Wörheide G, Solé-Cava AM, Hooper JN (2005) Biodiversity, molecular ecology and phylogeography of marine sponges: patterns, implications and outlooks. 2007). Haplotype C5A2 was found in the central Indo-Pacific, but also in the tropical Atlantic. Orange Sieve Encrusting Sponge. High-Veined Encrusting Sponge. That is longer than you can live! All of them share the same basic body plan: a … This information provides insight into genetic divergence among tropical reefs before physical barriers impeded gene flow between the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic. With one exception, connected haplotypes in the statistical parsimony network were differentiated by a single mutation (Fig. Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean islands 62:1–173, van Soest RWM, Boury-Esnault N, Vacelet J, Dohrmann M, Erpenbeck D, De Voogd NJ, Santodomingo N, Vanhoorne B, Kelly M, Hooper JN (2012) Global diversity of sponges (Porifera).
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