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plato communism pdf

Plato's real name was Aristocles.He excelled in the study of music , mathematics ,poetry and rhetoric . Also he has no scheme for abolition of family, as an idealist he begins from scratch and in theoretically constructing the Ideal, i.e. Moreover, he was unable to see that there is anything in the natural capacity of women that corresponds to the Athenian practice, since many women were as well qualified as men to take part in political or even military duties. Copyright 10. Abolition of the institutions of marriage and family is essential for the moral development of guardians. There were no public educational institutions. The original lecture was delivered in Hindi and the event was organized by Punashcha, the Indian People’s Theater Association (IPTA) and Koshish. The maintenance of family needs wealth implying that the involvements of the guardians in economic activities interfering into the realm of economic producers deviating from their political duties in violation of the principle of justice. There is no scheme of upward mobility of the lower classes, though there is scope for downward mobility, as we have seen above that offspring of inferior couples and those born by unauthorized coupling are secretly thrust over the producing community, if not abandoned or buried in some remote corner. Karl Popper wrote Open Society and its Enemies (Vol. As the theory of communism is a corollary of the theory of justice of which the non-interference is one of the specific features, Philosophers and soldiers must not interfere in the economic activities, the prerogative of the ruled classes – the producing classes. Plato finds the state as the more suitable place to discuss about the morality than an individual, because everything is easier to see in the large than in the small. Plato recommends a state regulated sexual association of men and women on festive occasions for procreation and not for pleasure. of Political Science, Hindu College, University of Delhi. ... Plato’s reasoning for the necessity. Family education is limited and inappropriate to instill the sense of absolute commitment to the state in future guardians. Plato’s scheme of communism deprived the guardian class not only of property, but also a private life or a family because family introduced an element of thine and mine. His student, Aristotle, was furious over his giving away the “historic victory” of mankind in “enslaving women”, while declaring, “Dear is Plato, but dearer ids the truth”. “They would have to invent some ingenious system of drawing lots, so that at each pairing off the inferior would blame his luck not the Rulers.” Plato undermines the emotive and impulsive aspects of human personality and subordinates them to rational aspects and considers sex not as a human need but only a instrument to produce future guardians. He blogs at Radical where this article first appeared. Plato’s Theory of Communism Plato’s theory of communism was certainly a corollary of his conception of justice. Communism has common roots with socialism. It is not that he regarded sex casually, but he demanded an amount of self-control that has never been realized among any large populations. His student and first critic criticizes the common ownership of property and abolition of family, for wrong reasons, there is scope here to go into details here. Plato’s communism is based on the premise that property, family instincts and private interests would distract man’s attention from his obligations to the community. Plato recognized the potential talent of women that was being wasted in marriage and the girls were married off in childhood itself as was the case prevalent in India till few decades and child marriage still prevails in many regions and communities. However, Plato did not bind this principle on the third class, namely, the artisans. Plato their may be at most a ‘ crude ‘ communism. The history of fascist ideology is long and draws on many sources. Introducction to Communism 1. Thinking about the state. .” And henceforth he moves to argue the indispensable need to abolish the institution of family itself for the ruling classes. The aim of his communism was to consolidate the class rule by keeping the members of the ruling class united by freeing/depriving them of the private family and property that has been discussed above. The children of the better parents they take to crèche to be reared in the care of nurses living apart in certain quarter of the city. The improvement of the race demands a more controlled and a more selective type of union. A. Also, in his opinion, family and property were the chief sources of disunity and social tension. The ruling classes are forced to leave the longing for gold and silver and also of private wives in the larger interest of the state. Appetite would blunt their reason or spirit and disturb the balanced equilibrium of the relationship between individual and the collectivity that would be detrimental to justice. According to Plato, truth and moralities are eternal and objective but Marxism does not recognize any final truth, the concept of which varies according to time and space. Plato’s approach was mainly concerned with one factor of produc­tion, that is, property that has to be socialized. Hence he finds the discipline of communism essential for proper just conduct of rulers. Family is hurdle for women’s equal education and function as guardians and hence an obstruction in their emancipation. Finally, the abolition of marriage was probably an implied criticism of the position of women in Athens, where her activities were summed up in keeping the house and rearing children. [4] When used in this sense, the word form is often capitalized. The Republic of Plato is also the first treatise upon education, page 4 / 687. of which the writings of Milton and Locke, Rousseau, Jean Paul, ... and the second State is constructed on principles of communism and ruled by philosophers, and the contemplation of the idea of good takes the place of the social and political virtues. He believed that without communism there would be clash of ideas and interests between reason and appetite. [5] Plato speaks of these “They must be if the breed of our guardians is to be kept pure”. the philosophers and the warriors from the institutions of … Plato’s argument about breeding of domestic animals refers to the sexual relations between men and women. Plato's real name was Aristocles.He excelled in the study of music , mathematics ,poetry and rhetoric . For instance, “I am fortunate to be born as a free man not a slave; a man and not a woman….” Apart from his acknowledgement that women are physically weaker (Rep.  V, 170), at places he brackets them with the duffers and slaves (IX 341). Both believe in dialectics and dialectical composition of nature and theuniverse but Marx’s reference point is not Platonic but Hegelian dialectics, which he put upside down, as it stands on the head. And no one else but Rulers must know how all this is being effected; otherwise out herd of guardians may become rebellious.” Rest will be “thrust out among the artisans and farmers”. -Communism will abolish classes. It’s the oldest of old things. The example of Sparta, wherein the citizens were denied the use of money and the privilege of engaging in trade, undoubtedly influenced Plato in reach­ing this conclusion. They were expected to dine at common tables and live in common barracks, which were always open. Jm-fN ! That is not so. Historically, as pointed out above both ate historically placed at different time-spaces. But here again as Plato’s communism is applicable to only ruling classes and Marx’s universally. Plato strongly believed that an economic division between the citizens of a state is the most dangerous political condition. Marx is more scientific and sociological than most of ancient philosophers, Share:WhatsAppFacebookTwitterTelegramRedditEmail This article is based on the 25th Chandrashekar Memorial Lecture delivered on 20 September 2020. The first step towards it would be democratizing the family by rejecting the patriarchal social values and sense of possessiveness. But, Modern communism is the result of the most complex conditions arising due to the industrial revolution in the Nineteenth Century Europe. End of Plato’s philosophy is justice that means a well ordered class society and that of Marx’s science is annihilation of the classes, as there cannot be justice in a class society based on the perpetuation of class exploitation. communism for his ideal state. The paring is done at festive occasions with all the enthusing activities of poetry and songs (befitting the occasion) and of course prayers and sacrifices. Plato deprived them of all valuables such as gold and silver, and were told that the diviner metal is within them, and therefore there is no need for any ornaments as it might pollute the divine thoughts. Contrary to the Sophist view that one exists and acts in the self-interest, Plato hold that individuals do not exist and act as individuals in the self-interest but exist as parts of collectivity (state) and must subordinate the self-interest to the collective. Comparison between two diverse things belonging to different time and space separated by over 2,000 years is not only inconvenient but also irrelevant. In platonic communism guardian class is the wheal of the state. Plato was, in fact, appalled by the casualness of human mating which according to him would not be tolerated in the breeding of any domestic animal. Further, the guardians, instead of caring for the welfare of their progeny, would thrive for the welfare of all. Also involvement of rulers into economic activities shall be a deviation from their role and commitment to the justice, i.e. For doing so, he invents the historical links of totalitarian philosophies from Plato to Marx via Rousseau. It is aimed at freeing the ruling classes, i.e. The Collapse of Communism 8. His theory applies to only a parasitic (non-producers), miniscule minority of rulers, who rule over the vast majority of economic producers and traders, who in the then contemporary Athens were free and equal citizens with the right to participate in legal and juridical deliberations. Marxian dialectics aims at the comprehension and interpretation of the contradictions of the system and the dynamics of the quantitative evolutionary and qualitative revolutionary changes. Plato’s communism, to put his theory very briefly, takes two forms. What a unique eugenic theory and family planning scheme! They were forced by the custom to be consumed in domestic chorus and child rearing. His eugenics and family planning proposals are unique but cruel to physically handicapped and illegal children. The following is a brief description of each form of communism: Plato’s communism of property is in no way related to the modern communism or socialism because there was no mention of socialization of the means of production. Methods and Values 7. According to his basic assumptions of human nature and the principle of functional specialization, he opines on the moral grounds that everyone must accomplish one’s nature of achieving the requisite end by transcending self-interest. Therefore it is imperative on the classes of philosophers that they selflessly devote themselves to their duties of ruling. Radical where this article first appeared. the philosophers and the warriors from the institutions of family and property. Disclaimer 9. Plato’s communism is ascetic and aristocratic simultaneously. After the Bolshevik revolution, The Ten Days That Shook The World (John Reed) and foundation of the Third International – The Communist International (Comintern), most of the capitalist countries had Communist Parties with substantial influence among workers, teachers and students. He advises the superior men not only against following the example of rascals and criminals but also not that of women (II, 96-97). Socialism isn’t the new new thing. This belief was mainly due to the widespread and frank opinions expressed by the Greeks that economic motives are very influential in determining political action and political affiliations. 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