Trends Ecol Evol 22:148–155, Article Giant barrel sponge. Coral Reefs 13:119–126, Geller JB, Darling JA, Carlton JT (2010) Genetic perspectives on marine biological invasions. However, present-day ocean currents and geographic barriers cannot explain why giant barrel sponges in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific do not form monophyletic lineages, and why in each ocean basin multiple genetically isolated lineages exist in sympatry. - 18.104.22.168. Six haplotypes from the Indo-Pacific were represented by more than 25 individuals in our dataset, and the majority of these haplotypes were widespread and occurred at multiple sampling sites. The giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta is an iconic and essential species of the coral reefs in South Florida. Mol Biol Evol 2016:msw054, Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, López R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007) ClustalW and ClustalX version 2. Also in the tropical Atlantic, McMurray et al. Seven of the nine CO1-haplotypes (C1–C9) previously submitted to GenBank (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. 2007). In particular, groups 1, 6 and 7 are ‘mixed’ in the tree, but they do not share any alleles. 3) but most closely related to group 3 in the haplotype network for the mtDNA (Fig. 2002) and ATP6 genes (Rua et al. Purple to red brown externally, tan internally. Sponges were assigned to a separate group when they possessed unique mtDNA haplotypes within one of the geographic regions and also formed a separate cluster of unique nuclear alleles (Fig. Haplotype network of the mitochondrial DNA genes CO1 and ATP6 of giant barrel sponges. In other words, different species in each ocean basin do not form separate monophyletic clades. 2013; Bell et al. Giant barrel sponges have not been found in the eastern Pacific and the eastern tropical Atlantic. 2013). 2008). 1992; Knowlton 1993; Klautau et al. In the western Indian Ocean, we found five different haplotypes in 21 sponges that were spread over the haplotype network; three of these haplotypes were only present in this region. Galaxea 18:1–2, Rua CP, Zilberberg C, Solé-Cava AM (2011) New polymorphic mitochondrial markers for sponge phylogeography. J Biogeogr 43:2136–2146, Diaz MC, Rützler K (2001) Sponges: an essential component of Caribbean coral reefs. This information provides insight into genetic divergence among tropical reefs before physical barriers impeded gene flow between the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic. All of the mtDNA haplotypes are confined to one nDNA group within a geographic region, suggesting biological species. The giant barrel sponge (Xestospongia muta) is the largest species of sponge found growing on Caribbean coral reefs. 2). 2008). Nature 457:718–721, Maloof AC, Rose CV, Beach R, Samuels BM, Calmet CC, Erwin DH, Poirier GR, Yao N, Simons FJ (2010) Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia. 3). Based on these criteria, the individuals from the central Indo-Pacific could be separated into three groups: group 1—haplotypes C1A1, C1A8 and C2A1; group 2—haplotypes C4A3 and C4A4; and group 3—haplotypes C5A2, C5A4 and C6A2. Aitchison JC, Ali JR, Davis AM (2007) When and where did India and Asia collide? Giant barrel sponges Xestospongiatestudinaria(Lamarck, 1813) and Xestospongiabergquistia(Fromont, 1991) in the Indo-Pacific and Xestospongiamuta(Schmidt, 1870) in the Caribbean, are among the largest known sponges (Demospongiae; Haplosclerida), measuring up to 2.4 meters in height and width. Thomas Swierts. Dark Volcano Sponge. These conspicuous sponges can measure up to a base diameter of more than 2.5 m (Nagelkerken et al. Article In total, we obtained 395 combined sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which resulted in 17 different haplotypes. We thank Friso Dekker, Maarten van Gemert, Christine Hörnlein, Yusheng Huang, Laurie van Reemst, Ee Crovetto, Ana-Rita Polonia, Rossana Freitas, Anne Bialecki, Mike Berumen, Jaaziel Garcia Hernandez, Sumaitt Putchakarn, Chad Scott, Nguyen Khac Bat, Swee Cheng Lim, Zarinah Waheed, Yosephine Tuti, Betsie Voetdijk, Peter Kuperus and Marcel Eurlings for logistic support, collecting and laboratory assistance. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Departamento de Biologia, CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, You can also search for this author in These specimens may be over 100 years old, as the sponges grow only about 1.5 cm a year. 1997). 1). Most studies that have focused on the distribution and evolution of marine species cover small spatial scales and become more useful when they are compared to more wide-ranging studies (Briggs and Bowen 2013; Cowman and Bellwood 2013a). Google Scholar, Bridge TC, Hughes TP, Guinotte JM, Bongaerts P (2013) Call to protect all coral reefs. Xestospongia muta(Giant or Caribbean Barrel Sponge) Order: Haplosclerida (No Common Name) Class: Demospongiae (Common Sponges) Phylum: Porifera (Sponges) Fig. Please consider upgrading,
An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. (0 photos) Cake-like Sponges (7 photos) It is also the largest species of sponge in the Caribbean. To our knowledge, the intertwined evolutionary history of tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa we found for giant barrel sponges has never been found in other benthic reef animals. The domain is Eukarya. Like most sponges, they pump water through their bodies to obtain food: plankton, bacteria and nutrients from the seawater. J Biogeogr 39:12–30, Briggs JC, Bowen BW (2013) Marine shelf habitat: biogeography and evolution. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Xestospongia rosariensis. Emily C. McGrath, Lisa Woods, Jamaluddin Jompa, Abdul Haris, James J. Am J Hum Genet 68:978–989, Swierts T, Peijnenburg KTCA, de Leeuw C, Cleary DFR, Hörnlein C, Setiawan E, Wörheide G, Erpenbeck D, de Voogd NJ (2013) Lock, stock and two different barrels: comparing the genetic composition of morphotypes of the Indo-Pacific sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. Brown Encrusting Octopus Sponge. S1). 2000). Usually, there is a general conformity between phylogeography and biogeography in marine animal groups, which suggests that geographic isolation is a starting point for divergences between species (Teske et al. Red-Orange Encrusting Sponge. Adding this gene to the CO1 gene expanded the number of haplotypes in our dataset from seven (C1, C2, C4–C6, C8, C9) to seventeen (Table 2). The giant barrel sponge, as the name suggests, is soft and barrel-shaped with a wall that can be up to 2.5 … Bioinformatics 23:2947–2948, Levitan DR, Fukami H, Jara J, Kline D, McGovern TM, McGhee KE, Swanson CA, Knowlton N (2004) Mechanisms of reproductive isolation among sympatric broadcast-spawning corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex. Congruent patterns between mtDNA and nDNA markers of giant barrel sponges around the globe point to the existence of multiple genetically isolated taxa and support our hypothesis of the existence of additional species. Sequence archive. Thus, for the giant barrel sponge, self-recruitment dominates (vs. receiving larvae from other reefs). Google Scholar, Bowen BW, Gaither MR, DiBattista JD, Iacchei M, Andrews KR, Grant WS, Toonen RJ, Briggs JC (2016) Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet. Furthermore, numerous phylogenetic studies have provided evidence of cryptic species, i.e., species that are indistinguishable from congenerics in morphology and spatial distribution, but that are clearly differentiated genetically (Bickford et al. If this is the case, it would suggest that one species of giant barrel sponge in each ocean basin independently developed into different species and/or species complexes. For the ATP6 gene, we used the primers ATP6porF (5′-GTAGTCCAGGATAATTTAGG-3′) and ATP6porR (5′-GTTAATAGACAAAATACATAAGCCTG-3′), which amplified a product of 445 bp. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574, Röthing T, Voolstra CR (2016) Xestospongia testudinaria nighttime mass spawning observation in Indonesia.
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