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types of slaughtering methods

The meat processing industry is one of the largest consumers of total freshwater used in the agricultural and livestock industry worldwide. This assessment includes understanding that a given sign may be useful if it is present but not always if it absent, for example: Vocalization and spontaneous blinking, when present are reliable signs for consciousness but when absent are not reliable signs for unconsciousness. University, Animals that are electroimmobilized are still conscious and sensible to stimuli, including pain stimuli, Therefore electrical stunning parameters should be used that can induce epileptiform seizure activity in the brain. stunning, shutting, electrical shock…etc., are hindering the bleeding process. The most common methods of stunning include an apparatus that induces a concussion, referred to as concussive methods, the use of electricity to immobilize and concuss the … In Australia approximately 32 million sheep and 8 million cattle are killed in abattoirs each year for human consumption (both domestic and export). However, it may not always provide a consistent uniform stunning concentration of CO, This may lead to a failure to stun some birds or that some birds regain consciousness prior to bleeding, For some systems in use, a more gradual increase in CO. Total dwell time will depend on class or species of poultry, average weight of birds, equipment and parameters used and whether the outcome is intended to be reversible or irreversible stunning. For ostriches and rheas, to promote better bleeding, it is preferable to sever the major blood vessels (jugular veins and carotids) in the caudal cervical area near the thoracic inlet provided the thoracic cavity is not penetrated. For ratites (emus, rheas and ostriches), if hooded, this will require increased amperage for an effective stun, a means/protocol to validate effective stunning parameters, the electrical stunning equipment is maintained and cleaned, as stated in the licence holder's written PCP and the manufacturer's specifications, in cases where the manufacturer's recommendations are not used, documentation to explain the rationale for the alternate approach should be developed and maintained, the voltage and amperage are monitored and recorded throughout the shift, the length of time of the current is applied is measured, safeguards that the equipment does not deliver any shock before stunning occurs, requirements that the electrodes are always positioned to span the brain and never on the bird's neck or beak, requirements that the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds, requirements for a backup stunning equipment to be available and properly functional, undersized birds should not be hung, unless they can be effectively stunned by the water bath with the proper adjustments of the equipment, these undersized birds or runts should be humanely killed by an appropriate method if they cannot be effectively stunned. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. While mild signs of response to the irritating effects of the gas are not uncommon, genetics and breeds of the pigs may play a role in the degree of the pig's reaction to the high levels of CO. For this reason, the pigs should be monitored before they demonstrate loss of posture for any signs of extreme aversive behaviour, such as escape behaviour and corrective action measures implemented, such as adjusting gas concentrations. Anal region: Clear skin carefully from around anus avoiding puncturing it … Let me teach you the 2 easy method of slaughtering chickens – by “cone” and by “bucket.” When keeping chickens, whether for eggs or fryers, you eventually will find yourself at a point to determine whether to slaughter it yourself, or to take it to a butcher to do. PRESENTATION The licence holder of the slaughter establishment should include written training protocols in the PCP to ensure that personnel who perform the task of stunning are able to check all animals to rule out the presence of consciousness. The section reads as follows  Either of the following two methods of slaughtering and handling are hereby found to be humane: a) In the case of cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, and other livestock, all animals are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. Mechanical, electrical or gas stunning; slaughter methods and monitoring signs of unconsciousness or consciousness. 3. In the second stage, the animal is killed, usually by slitting its throat and allowing the blood to drain. The most common one is manual cervical dislocation, and this method dislocates the neck from the brain stem, and also stretches the carotid arteries. Note that even with low frequency, high current systems, the bird may recover to some degree if the current is not delivered properly to the individual bird. the right equipment is used for the right species at all times, the current (amperage and voltage) is adequate for the species slaughtered to avoid electroimmobilization, employees who conduct the stunning require adequate training for the specific equipment used, animals are well restrained and stay calm, for head-only stunning, the outcome is a reversible stun, the electrodes must always be placed to span the brain for the current to flow properly through the brain for all food animals. Swine 1. Pigs can also exhibit gasping type of breathing or hyperventilation during induction but this may be more due to a brainstem response to the hypercapnia rather than a sign of aversive behaviour. evaluate various slaughtering methods with respect to stress on the fish and the quality of the flesh. Temple Grandin – Updated June 2017 to include information on Zone of Transition between fully conscious and unconscious. licence holder has demonstrated that no other means of stunning is practical or works as well: for example, for horses, firearms may give a better stun than captive bolt stunning, depending on stun pen layout, horse temperament and nature, equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and recognize the signs of an effective stun, caliber and range are suitable for the species and class of animal, the ammunition selected for the species and body type to be slaughtered provides effective stunning while minimizing over-penetration or the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, ammunition is stored in a clean dry area and has not aged excessively, the firearm is cleaned and maintained and stored to ensure it functions effectively, a bullet proof barrier between the stunning area and the kill floor to protect people from the effects of misdirected bullets, slugs, or ricochet, remote viewing to allow monitoring of stun efficacy and bleed-rail insensibility with protection from the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, a visible warning system to indicate when firearms are being discharged, back-up stunning equipment, readily available. It is the shooting, by a gun or pistol in the forehead (mechanical method) by a blank cartridge or compressed air. the recommended equipment settings for each size of bird that is stunned including specification of: the frequency of current (AC/DC) and which one is used for which step, the time of stun (taking into account the line speed and length of the stunner), number of birds stunned at the same time and for each step in a two-phase system, the protocol for the maintenance of the equipment for salinity flow. Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Originally passed in 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. Staff morale improved too. Type: Scientific Opinion. An electrical current is passed through the animal's brain via a large pair of tongs, causing temporary loss of consciousness. They should be sufficiently trained and competent to monitor every animal after stunning or for poultry, whether most of the birds appear the same when looking down the line, until the animals are bled out and verified to be dead prior to further dressing steps and procedures. Please do not read further if you feel you may be negatively affected by the content. And ones that use little equipment are often quite popular, so that you don't have to be carrying lots of tools around with you. The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. A beating heart will continue to pump blood and will thus cause blood to circulate and exit a severed jugular more quickly. Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences SWWs need significant treatment for a sustainable and safe discharge to the environment due to the … The conditions for Halal slaughter can be summarized as follows: The animal to be slaughtered must be from the categories that are permitted for Muslims to eat. signs of potential return to consciousness/sensibility which are evaluated in the context of the whole picture, as a collective assessment and must include enough signs as indicators to make this assessment correctly. The operational parameters of the equipment should have a protocol that includes: how the equipment is tested and the frequency of testing, methods used to determine the gas concentrations, exposure times for the species, the size(s) of birds processed, the gas mixtures and methods used are those proven to be effective and humane, the establishment should have a protocol in place to identify birds that are conscious upon exit from the gas stunning system, through an effective monitoring procedure, especially if the outcome is not irreversible gas stunning, and ensure the birds are immediately re-stunned or humanely killed, LAPS is a computer controlled patented system that uses slow decompression (vacuum) to remove O. LAPS may provide the same animal welfare standards not less than the presently accepted methods available. This Act requires the proper treatment and humane handling of all food animals slaughtered in USDA inspected slaughter plants. Depending on which areas of the brain are affected, this state of unconscious can be superficial and short lasting or deeper and longer lasting. Some reasons for this include higher resistance from an individual bird or the bird's incorrect positioning when presented to the source of electricity. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Stunning should fulfill the following requirements in order to demonstrate the outcome of avoidable suffering to the individual food animal: Assessing the state of unconsciousness in the stunned animal is not always a straightforward task. This research paper discuss the difference between the halal (Islamic) and the recent (conventional) methods of animals slaughter and explain the effect of each method on the meat safety and hygiene. The outcome of electrical stunning is to pass current of sufficient strength and duration through the brain to interrupt normal brain rhythmic electrical activity. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. A transverse incision of the neck is a common method of bleeding sheep. For all multiple bird systems, birds should only be suspended on the shackle line for a minimum amount of time, not more than 2 minutes for ducks, geese and turkeys and not more than 1 minute for other poultry prior to stunning because: they have no diaphragms and there is increased cardiac pressure and bird death when in a prolonged inverted position, furthermore, there is the risk of pain and injury from the shackle from compression on the metatarsus, especially if it is not the correct size slot for the size of bird, shackles with moveable, tapering slots generally work better than parallel slots, if the shackles are too large there will be poor contact and insufficient current flow, if the shackles are too small it will be painful and induce flapping which interferes with stunning, wetting shackles can improve conductivity, The output of the electrical equipment (volts or amps) should be tested under load, using equipment which can simulate the resistance of a shackled bird or a bird's head depending on the placement of the electrodes, the waterbath should be sufficiently large (width, length and depth) to accommodate the wing span and body mass for the type of bird(s) being slaughtered and to avoid birds heads or other parts being trapped outside of the waterbath sides, all equipment should be cleaned, maintained, adjusted and tested to ensure it is operating properly with good current flow before the beginning of each day's operations, the water bath (live) electrode needs to be kept clean and must run the entire length of the waterbath to facilitate current flow, the ground (shackle) electrode needs to be regularly cleaned and have constant contact with the shackles since intermittent contact results in a less effective, intermittent stun, protocol for the maintenance of the stunning equipment, methods used to determine the electrical settings for each lot and type of birds processed, including a means to validate effective stunning parameters. For poultry, there is the advantage that the birds can be stunned in the transport containers if they are specially designed modules for this purpose and therefore, the birds are minimally handled while still conscious. The first stage of the process, usually called stunning, is meant to render the animal fully unconscious, and thus not susceptible to pain, but not necessarily dead. Decapitation of birds can be used to slaughter birds, as a back-up process for birds that have not been properly rendered insensible by another method of stunning, such as an electric stunner or CAS. Pre-stun shock occurs when any part of a bird receives an electric shock before it enters the waterbath or in other cases, before it is effectively stunned. Slaughter houses have no such ethical basis for their methods. The floor of the box should be non-slip. Ritual slaughter is performed by a throat cut, which severs all soft tissues of the throat (muscles, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, nerves) without preslaughter stunning. CVASU However there is a transition zone or a gray zone between consciousness and unconsciousness when the animal may slide into and out of consciousness that may require re-stunning the animal to avoid a return to consciousness. Signs of effective stun include ataxia, loss of posture and wing flapping from tonic/clonic convulsions caused by the anoxia. New Zealand u… animals are bled by incising a carotid artery and jugular vein close to the cranial part of the neck, or close to the place from which they arise (chest sticking): chest sticking is strongly recommended as it results in a massive flow of blood rapidly when done properly, the blood flow from sticking is adequate to prevent occlusion during bleed out. 2. Possible discomfort associated with this method must be controlled through the rate of decompression and O. Head-only stunning requires that electrified electrodes span the brain so that the circuit will pass through the brain, Head-body stunning for mammals requires that two electrified electrodes span the brain and a third one is on the chest, sternum or back, Head-body stunning for poultry is usually accomplished through a multiple bird electrical waterbath system; however this is very dependent on the electrical parameters used for the system. The size of the box should be just wide enough to prevent the animal from turning around, and so be difficult to stun. Hazard's preventive and corrective measures: It has been shown that rabbits find CO2 in concentrations higher than 70% causes painful stimulation of the nasal mucosa and aversive reactions (Llonch et al., 2012 ; Dalmau et al., 2016 ). Pre-stun shocks should be monitored and prevented since it is painful for the birds and the licence holder should take the necessary steps to prevent it, including the determination of the root cause. Department of Animal Science and Nutrition If done correctly, the circuit from electrifying the electrodes will produce an electric field in the brain that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the neuronal membranes resulting in an epileptiform seizure, which renders the animal unconscious. 2015 Jun 30; 4(3): 4576: EFSA Journal (2004), 45, 1 -29, (English only): European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) publications for monitoring of stunning during slaughter, 2013: Verhoeven, Merel, Marien Gerritzen, Antonio Velarde, Ludo Hellebrekers, Bas Kemp. The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP for the captive bolt stunning equipment should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and are able to monitor the signs of an effective stun for each animal. A five-year study of our humane slaughter training found that abattoirs earned a better reputation by using humane methods, helping them compete globally.

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